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- The CFD Development of Non-premixed Dual Fuel Combustion Diesel Engine injected by High-pressure Gas in the Cylinder Chamber

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- Understanding Problem Difficulty in Heuristic Search

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- CFD Simulations to Investigate the Drag Reduction Performance of Shark Skin Inspired Riblet Structure
- CFD Simulations to Investigate the Effect of Retrofitting Technologies to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Bulk Carrier
- Development of Intelligent Forms of Large Ships for Energy Efficient Transportation
- Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Multi-Bladed Tidal Turbine
- Hydroacoustic Modelling of Underwater Noise
- Hydrodynamics of High Performance Vessels Operating in Shallow Water
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- Multi-Scale Modeling of Heart Post-MI
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- Study of Ship Manoeuvring Using CFD
- Valve leak tightness

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- MD Simulation Study on Nanometric Cutting of Single Crystal Silicon at Elevated Temperatures
- Mechanical Analysis of Cancellous Bone Architecture
- Micro-Fracture of Cementitious Material
- Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Superalloy Under Extreme Environment
- Molecular Studies of Thermodynamic Properties of Nanofluids and Liquids in Nanochannels
- Numerical Modelling of the Friction Stir Welding Process

- Molecular Simulation of Biological Systems
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- Spontaneous Membrane-Translocating Peptide Adsorption
- The Effect of Surface Chemistry on Protein Adsorption – an Experimental and Simulation Study

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- Interfacial Properties of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: Electrical Double Layer, RTILs&Nanomaterials and Applications
- Monte Carlo Modelling of Spacecraft Re-Entry
- Next-Generation Flow Systems Engineering
- Reverse Osmosis Membrane Design Using Molecular Dynamics

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- ALPHA-X : Plasma wakefield acceleration
- Relativistic Plasma Physics: Laser-Driven Radiation Sources and Ultra-High Field Physics
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^{40}K - Novel Methods for Short Wavelength Free Electron Lasers
- New twists in the diffraction of intense laser light

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## Understanding Problem Difficulty in Heuristic Search

The goal of this project is to better understand what makes a combinatorial optimisation problem easy or difficult for a given (meta-)heuristic search algorithm. This is achieved using landscape analysis and by evolving problem instances. The problems considered include traditional combinatorial problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem, as well as problems occurring in Software Engineering, such as Mutation Testing or Combinatorial Interaction Testing.

We analyse a search space by sampling points across the space induced by some problem instance and some heuristic search algorithm in order to produce a representation of the fitness landscape the search process has to travel through. In particular, we use Local Optima Networks to model the search space as a graph having local optima as vertices, and transitions among them according to a given search operator as edges. These networks are then analysed, by measuring specific characteristics and through visualisations, in order to better understand the challenges faced by the solving method and to propose improvements.

This ARCHIE-WeSt project is carried out in the context of two projects at the University of Stirling: the ‘Dynamic Adaptive Automated Software Engineering’ (DAASE, grant number EP/J017515/1, Co-I Dr Gabriela Ochoa) project funded by the EPSRC and ‘The Cartography of Computational Search Spaces’ (award number RPG-2015-395, PI Dr Gabriela Ochoa) funded by the Leverhulme Trust.

For more information about the project contact Dr Nadarajen Veerapen (nve [at] cs [dot] stir [dot] ac [dot] uk), Research Fellow in the Division of Computing Science and Mathematics at the University of Stirling.

For a list of the research areas in which ARCHIE-WeSt users are active please click here.