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- An Investigation on Drag Reduction Capabilities of Dimpled Surfaces
- Characterization of solid-liquid mixing in a continuous oscillatory baffled crystallizer using CFD
- CFD Simulation of Carbon Absorption Process for Carbon Solidification on Ships
- Combustion sub-model development using high-fidelity DNS data
- Complex Multi-Phase Fluid Dynamics Study in Micro-Scale Systems
- Computational Marine Hydrodynamics
- Control or Mitigation of the Turbulence Generated by Marine Control Surface
- Development of a Hybrid CFD-DSMC Solver
- Helicopter Multi-Block Code
- High resolution compressible CFD simulations
- High Speed Flow Chemistry Modelling
- Investigation of Cavitation Influence on Rudder-Propeller-Hull Interaction
- Low-Order Modelling of Unsteady Aerofoil and Wing Flows
- Numerical Simulation of a Cylindrical Oscillating Water Column Type Wave Energy Device
- Numerical Simulations of Flapping Wing Dynamics Using a Partitioned Fluid-Structure Interaction Solver with Overset Grids
- Numerical Study of Two Phase Slug Flow in Pipes
- Reduced Basis Modelling for Aircraft Aerodynamics
- Rocket Plumes
- Scalability and Applications of a DSMC Code
- StarDust
- The CFD Development of Non-premixed Dual Fuel Combustion Diesel Engine injected by High-pressure Gas in the Cylinder Chamber
- Using Ansys Fluent on ARCHIE

- Computing Science
- CAD-CFD Seamless Integration
- FAIME: A Feature based Framework to Automatically Integrate and Improve Metaheuristics via Examples
- Intelligent Decision Support and Control Technologies for Continuous Manufacturing and Crystallisation of Pharmaceuticals and Fine Chemicals – ICT-CMAC
- Towards an Adaptive SBSE Based Approaches for Cloud Elasticity
- Understanding Problem Difficulty in Heuristic Search

- Digital Rendering
- Earth Science
- Energy Modelling
- Fluid-Structure Interaction
- A fully automated optimisation of a fully parametric vessel for real world conditions
- CFD Simulations for modelling the roughness effects of fouling control coatings and biofouling on ship hydrodynamic performance
- CFD Simulation for the Analysis of Ships Operating in Extreme Trim
- CFD Simulation of Surge Onset in Centrifugal Compressors
- CFD Simulations to Investigate the Drag Reduction Performance of Shark Skin Inspired Riblet Structure
- CFD Simulations to Investigate the Effect of Retrofitting Technologies to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Bulk Carrier
- Development of Intelligent Forms of Large Ships for Energy Efficient Transportation
- Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Multi-Bladed Tidal Turbine
- Hydroacoustic Modelling of Underwater Noise
- Hydrodynamic Effect of Restricted Waters on Ships
- Hydrodynamics of High Performance Vessels Operating in Shallow Water
- Hydrodynamic Properties of Complex Subsea Structures
- Investigating the Dynamic Behaviours of a Single and Multiple Falling Rigid and Oscillating Bodies in a Fluid
- Multi-Scale Modeling of Heart Post-MI
- Numerical Simulations on the Ship Added Resistance in Waves
- Simulation of Flooding of a Ship After Damage with Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Study of Ship Manoeuvring Using CFD
- Valve leak tightness

- Materials Science
- Computational Modelling and Design of Nanoporous Silica Materials
- Computational Solid Mechanics
- Integrated modelling and simulation of laser metal deposition (LMD) for additive manufacturing
- Investigation of Dynamic Behaviour of Structures with Heterogeneous Materials
- MD Simulation Study on Nanometric Cutting of Single Crystal Silicon at Elevated Temperatures
- Mechanical Analysis of Cancellous Bone Architecture
- Micro-Fracture of Cementitious Material
- Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Superalloy Under Extreme Environment
- Molecular Studies of Thermodynamic Properties of Nanofluids and Liquids in Nanochannels
- Numerical Modelling of the Friction Stir Welding Process
- The Spreading Dynamics of Water Droplet on Textured Surfaces
- Theoretical Investigation of the Electronic and Optical properties of Solar Cells Mater

- Molecular Simulation of Biological Systems
- Beta-Amyloid Adsorption
- Biomolecular and Chemical Physics
- Fast and Accurate Predictions of Physical-Chemical Properties of Drug-Like Molecules
- Interaction of Proteins with Solid Surfaces
- MD Trajectory Pocket Analysis
- Molecular Modelling of Complex Aqueous Brine Solutions
- Protein Adsorption at Liquid Interfaces
- Spontaneous Membrane-Translocating Peptide Adsorption
- The Effect of an Oil/Water Interface on the Nucleation Kinetics and Polymorphism of Glycine
- The Effect of Surface Chemistry on Protein Adsorption – an Experimental and Simulation Study

- Molecular Simulation for Engineering Applications
- Chemistry Modelling for Planetary Space Craft
- Interfacial Properties of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: Electrical Double Layer, RTILs&Nanomaterials and Applications
- Monte Carlo Modelling of Spacecraft Re-Entry
- Molecular Dynamics of Thermocapillary flows
- Next-Generation Flow Systems Engineering
- Reverse Osmosis Membrane Design Using Molecular Dynamics

- Photonics and Plasma Physics
- ALPHA-X : Plasma wakefield acceleration
- Relativistic Plasma Physics: Laser-Driven Radiation Sources and Ultra-High Field Physics
- Semi-classical Monte-Carlo Simulations of Sub-Doppler cooling in
^{40}K - Novel Methods for Short Wavelength Free Electron Lasers
- New twists in the diffraction of intense laser light

- Renewable Energy
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- Trajectory Optimisation
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## Understanding Problem Difficulty in Heuristic Search

The goal of this project is to better understand what makes a combinatorial optimisation problem easy or difficult for a given (meta-)heuristic search algorithm. This is achieved using landscape analysis and by evolving problem instances. The problems considered include traditional combinatorial problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem, as well as problems occurring in Software Engineering, such as Mutation Testing or Combinatorial Interaction Testing.

We analyse a search space by sampling points across the space induced by some problem instance and some heuristic search algorithm in order to produce a representation of the fitness landscape the search process has to travel through. In particular, we use Local Optima Networks to model the search space as a graph having local optima as vertices, and transitions among them according to a given search operator as edges. These networks are then analysed, by measuring specific characteristics and through visualisations, in order to better understand the challenges faced by the solving method and to propose improvements.

This ARCHIE-WeSt project is carried out in the context of two projects at the University of Stirling: the ‘Dynamic Adaptive Automated Software Engineering’ (DAASE, grant number EP/J017515/1, Co-I Dr Gabriela Ochoa) project funded by the EPSRC and ‘The Cartography of Computational Search Spaces’ (award number RPG-2015-395, PI Dr Gabriela Ochoa) funded by the Leverhulme Trust.

For more information about the project contact Dr Nadarajen Veerapen (nve [at] cs [dot] stir [dot] ac [dot] uk), Research Fellow in the Division of Computing Science and Mathematics at the University of Stirling.

For a list of the research areas in which ARCHIE-WeSt users are active please click here.